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Expert Analysis and Commentary
Larry Swedroe Jan 19, 2015
The table below shows the year-to-date returns of five representative exchange-traded funds (ETFs).
|ETF||Year-to-Date Returns (%)|
|SPY (SPDR S&P 500)||14.7|
|SLY (SPDR S&P 600 Small Cap)||3.7|
|SLYV (SPDR S&P 600 Small Cap Value)||4.5|
|EFA (iShares MSCI EAFE)||-2.2|
|EEM (iShares MSCI Emerging Markets)||0.1|
Negative tracking error like we have seen this year, however, creates numerous opportunities for investors to fail the test of discipline. And it’s why the research shows that investors tend to underperform the very funds in which they invest. They buy after periods of good performance and sell after periods of poor performance.
The years 1998 and 1999 provide a good example of why Warren Buffett said that “the most important quality for an investor is temperament, not intellect.” The table below shows the returns for each of those years.
|ETF||1998 Return (%)||1999 Return (%)|
|S&P 500 Index||28.6||21.0|
|MSCI EAFE Index||20.3||27.3|
|MSCI Emerging Markets Index||-25.3||60.4|
The three-year period from 2000 through 2002 provides us with another good example.
|ETF||2000-2002 Annualized Return (%)|
|S&P 500 Index||-14.6|
|MSCI US Small Cap 1750 Index||-2.9|
|MSCI US Small Cap Value Index||8.5|
Unfortunately, no one knows whether a diversified portfolio will produce negative or positive tracking error relative to the S&P 500 Index in 2015. But what’s interesting is that, whether you believe in the active or passive management of portfolios, divergences in returns (or tracking error) provides opportunity. Let’s see why this is the case.
Unfortunately, there’s very strong evidence that tactical asset allocation (TAA) strategies are more likely to subtract value than to add it. For example, one study found that for the 12 years ending with 1997, the S&P 500 rose 734 percent on a total return basis. The average return for 186 TAA funds was a mere 384 percent.
In a more recent study, Morningstar examined the returns of 163 TAA funds during the period that ended July 2010. It’s important to note that by the end of the period under study, 39 of the TAA funds no longer existed due to merger or liquidation. Of the surviving tactical strategies, the median life span at period end was 37 months.
The study concluded that TAA funds, in general, failed to deliver on their promise of better risk-adjusted returns, or downside protection, than a traditional balanced index portfolio allocated 60 percent to stocks and 40 percent to bonds. For example, 64 of the 92 TAA funds that were at least a year old (or 70 percent) had worse performance since inception than Vanguard’s passively managed Balanced Index Fund (VBINX). The average underperformance was 2.6 percentage points per year.
Morningstar updated the study through the end of 2011. They again compared the returns of TAA funds to Vanguard’s Balanced Index Fund (VBINX), which as we know passively invests its assets in a 60/40 stock/bond mix. The following is a summary of their conclusions:
Morningstar again updated the study in 2013. And again, most of the TAA funds they examined failed to live up to their promise to limit downside losses and participate meaningfully in any upside. Morningstar found that over the 18 months ended June 30, 2013, only 28 of 142 funds they tracked (or 20 percent) produced higher returns than the Vanguard Balanced Index Fund.
In short, the best thing that can be said about tactical asset allocation is that it’s a strategy fraught with opportunity.
Such investors do so by maintaining discipline and adhering to their investment plans through the tactic known as rebalancing. In this scenario, rebalancing would require investors to sell (at relatively higher prices) their outperforming U.S. large stocks to buy (at relatively lower prices) more of the underperforming U.S. small and value stocks, as well as international stocks. Unfortunately, as we mentioned earlier, behavioral mistakes prevent most individual investors from taking advantage of the opportunity to rebalance. Now that you’re aware of the behavioral errors, hopefully you’ll be able to avoid them.
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